As we have discussed previously on our blogs, Louisiana courts apply “ordinary contract principles” when interpreting insurance policies. “Words and phrases used in an insurance policy are to be construed using their plain, ordinary and generally prevailing meaning.” Cadwallader v. Allstate Ins. Co. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, applying Louisiana law, recently utilized this approach when reviewing an appeal in a case involving a tragic medical injury.
Dr. Robert Lee Berry, an anesthesiologist, was employed by Louisiana Anesthesia Associates (“LAA”), a practice that provided anesthesia services to hospitals throughout the state. In March, 2001, Berry’s employment was terminated by Dr. William Preau, a shareholder of LAA, when it was discovered that Berry had been abusing narcotics while on duty. Yet, less than four months later, Preau wrote an unqualified letter of recommendation on Berry’s behalf when Berry applied for a job at the Kadlec Medical Center in Richland, Washington. Preau did not disclose Berry’s known drug use at work or his employment termination from LAA. On November 12, 2002, Berry improperly anesthetized a patient, Kimberly Jones, at Kadlec while under the influence of drugs. As a result of Berry’s mistake, Jones suffered an anoxic brain injury and emerged from the surgery in a permanent vegetative state. Jones’s family sued Kadlec Medical Center and Berry in Washington, ultimately arriving at a settlment with Kadlec for $7.5 million. Kadlec then brought suit against LAA and Preau in the district court for the Eastern District of Louisiana. At that trial, the jury found that Preau had committed “intentional and negligent misrepresentation” by failing to disclose Berry’s drug abuse and employment termination in his recommendation letter. The jury awarded Kadlec damages of over $8 million. This amount reflected Kadlec’s settlement with the Jones family plus approximately $750,000 in attorney’s fees Kadlec incurred defending the suit.
In 2001 when Preau wrote the recommendation letter on Berry’s behalf, LAA was insured under a commercial general liability policy issued by the St. Paul Fire & Marine Insurance Co. The policy covered covered LAA’s shareholders, including Preau. When St. Paul declined coverage of the judgment against Preau in the Kadlec suit, Preau filed an action against St. Paul. Following cross-motions for summary judgment, and the district court entered judgment for Preau. The main issue on appeal was whether the damages that Preau was obligated to pay Kadlec were covered under the policy’s “bodily injury” provision, which defined the term as “any physical harm, including sickness or disease, to the physical health of other persons.” The Fifth Circuit held that characterizing the judgment against Preau as requiring him to pay Kadlec damages for “bodily injury” was inaccurate. Instead, the judgment required Preau to pay economic damages to Kadlec for the losses it suffered due to Preau’s misrepresentation. “The economic damages Kadlec sought for Preau’s tortious misrepresentation are distinct from the damages Jones or any other party might seek for her bodily injuries.” In the court’s view, even though the amount of the damages that Kadlec sought from Preau was directly related to the amount it had paid to defend and settle the Jones family’s claim, the damages were still of the economic variety, and therefore not of the type covered by the St. Paul policy. The court further explained the distinction by noting that Preau’s liability to Kadlec arose from his breach of an independent duty he owed to Kadlec–Preau did not become legally responsible to Kadlec Suit for Jones’s bodily injuries, but rather the losses Kadlec faced due to Preau’s breach. Accordingly, the court reversed the district court’s judgment and remanded with instructions to enter judgment in favor of St. Paul.
Although the courts claim reliance on “ordinary” contract principles when interpreting insurance policies, this case shows how a court’s analysis of a policy–which to most consumers is already a particularly dense and forbidding document–can be anything but straightforward and obvious. If you are in a dispute with an insurance company over coverage, seek counsel from an experienced attorney who can help you navigate the complexities of the policy language and Louisiana case law to determine the strength of your claim.
Call the Berniard Law Firm at 1-866-574-8005 today.